The book gets its title from the idea that various moral viewpoints are like different locations on a landscape. Moral systems that are associated with greater well-being are the higher elevations; those that bring misery are the valleys. For example, the moral system that characterizes a typical, first-world democracy, while not perfect, is certainly at a higher elevation than the brand of morality to which the Taliban would subjugate us all. Our job, says Harris, is to get to the highest ground possible.
I’ve always been skeptical of utilitarianism — the idea of “the greatest good for the greatest number.” First of all, how do you establish what is “good”? And even if you can measure the good that someone experiences, how do you combine those measurements across several billion people to produce a meaningful statistic that lets you make a moral decision? And let’s not even talk about the conundrums exposed by trolley problems! Before reading his book, I thought Dr. Harris’s idea had to be just another cul-de-sac in the utilitarian suburb.
My own view, which I outlined last fall, is that humanity’s competing moral systems are nothing more than memes, but, happily, the memes that cause their adherents to flourish will eventually dominate.
It turns out that Dr. Harris’s ideas are compatible with that view, but he strengthens it with a dose of moral realism. I would summarize his argument thus:
- Moral values must ultimately be about the well-being of conscious organisms (including God, if you will). If there were a value that had absolutely no impact on anyone’s consciousness, we would by definition have no reason to value it.
- One’s well-being is embodied in one’s brain state.
- We have thus made a link between morality and physical fact.
- Physical facts are the domain of science.
- Science can therefore help us find moral truths.
As Dr. Harris puts it, “morality should be considered an undeveloped branch of science.” (Just to be clear, Dr. Harris, a neuroscientist, is not saying that we should seek answers to all moral questions by attaching electrodes to people’s scalps.)
In the next several posts, I’ll relate some points that were most thought-provoking for me such as…
- The Bad Life versus the Good Life.
- The disastrous consequences of separating facts and values, as practiced by the Left.
- Ditto, when done by the Right.
- An analogy between moral health and physical health.
- How much respect should we give other views?
- Have we flown the perch built by evolution?
- How does an afterlife figure in all this?
- Can suffering be good?
- What about religion?
- Hume’s is/ought distinction.
- How a barbarous act by one person becomes respected if it is a cultural practice.
- Might there be more than one answer?
- The strange case of the Dobu Islanders.
- If we were to concern ourselves with maximizing well-being rather than with right and wrong, what would we lose?
- The most important task facing humanity in the twenty-first century.
There’s actually a lot more, but that’s all I’ll promise for now. Stay tuned!